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Old 10th December 2015, 11:07 AM
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Roseman, J. M., et al. (2015). "Hybrid integrated biological-solid-state system powered with adenosine triphosphate." Nat Commun 6.
There is enormous potential in combining the capabilities of the biological and the solid state to create hybrid engineered systems. While there have been recent efforts to harness power from naturally occurring potentials in living systems in plants and animals to power complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuits, here we report the first successful effort to isolate the energetics of an electrogenic ion pump in an engineered in vitro environment to power such an artificial system. An integrated circuit is powered by adenosine triphosphate through the action of Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatases in an integrated in vitro lipid bilayer membrane. The ion pumps (active in the membrane at numbers exceeding 2 [times] 106[thinsp]mm-2) are able to sustain a short-circuit current of 32.6[thinsp]pA[thinsp]mm-2 and an open-circuit voltage of 78[thinsp]mV, providing for a maximum power transfer of 1.27[thinsp]pW[thinsp]mm-2 from a single bilayer. Two series-stacked bilayers provide a voltage sufficient to operate an integrated circuit with a conversion efficiency of chemical to electrical energy of 14.9%.



Figure 1: Fully hybrid biological–solid-state system.
(a) Illustration depicting biocell attached to CMOS integrated circuit. (b) Illustration of membrane in pore containing sodium–potassium pumps. (c) Circuit model of equivalent stacked membranes, =2.1 pA, =98.6 GΩ, =575 GΩ and =75 pF, Ag/AgCl electrode equivalent resistance RWE+RCE<20 kΩ, energy-harvesting capacitor CSTOR=100 nF combined with switch as an impedance transformation network (only one switch necessary due to small duty cycle), and CMOS IC voltage doubler and resistor representing digital switching load. RL represents the four independent ring oscillator loads. (d) Equivalent circuit detail of stacked biocell. (e) Switched-capacitor voltage doubler circuit schematic.
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